IndiaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s links with the struggle for freedom and justice in South Africa date back toÃ‚Â the period during which Mahatma Gandhi started hisÃ‚Â Satyagraha movement inÃ‚Â South Africa over a century ago.Ã‚Â India was at theÃ‚Â forefront of the internationalÃ‚Â community in its support to the antiapartheid movement; it was the first country toÃ‚Â sever trade relations with the apartheid Government (in 1946) and subsequentlyÃ‚Â imposed a complete — diplomatic, commercial, cultural and sports –embargo onÃ‚Â South Africa.Ã‚Â India worked consistently to put the issue of apartheid on the agendaÃ‚Â of the UN, NAM and other multilateral organizations and for the imposition ofÃ‚Â comprehensive international sanctions against South Africa.Ã‚Â The ANC maintaineda representative office in New Delhi from the 1960s onwards.
2. Following talks between the then South African Government and the ANC,Ã‚Â IndiaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s relations with South Africa were restored after a gap of over four decadesÃ‚Â with the opening of a Cultural Centre in Johannesburg in May 1993.Ã‚Â FormalÃ‚Â diplomatic and consular relations with South Africa were restored in NovemberÃ‚Â 1993 during the visit to India of the then South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha.Ã‚Â A Consulate General was thereafter established in Johannesburg.Ã‚Â The Indian HighÃ‚Â Commission in Pretoria was opened in May 1994, followed by the opening of theÃ‚Â Consulate General in Durban the same month. Since Parliament in South AfricaÃ‚Â meets in Cape Town, a permanent office of the HighÃ‚Â Commission was openedÃ‚Â there in 1996. In addition to its High Commission in Delhi, South Africa has aÃ‚Â Consulate General in Mumbai.
Development of political relations since 1994
3. Against the background of IndiaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s consistent support to the anti-apartheidÃ‚Â struggle, there has been a steady consolidation of our close and friendly ties withÃ‚Â South Africa, both bilaterally and through the trilateral IBSA Dialogue Forum.Ã‚Â AÃ‚Â number of bilateral agreements have been concludedÃ‚Â between the two countriesÃ‚Â since the assumption of diplomatic relations in 1993 in diverse areas ranging fromÃ‚Â economic and commercial cooperation, defence, culture, heath, humanÃ‚Â settlements, public administration, science and technology and education.
Recent High Level visits
4. President of South Africa, Mr. Jacob Zuma, accompanied by Mrs NompumeleloÃ‚Â Ntuli-Zuma, paid a State Visit to India from 02 to 05 June 2010. President ZumaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢sÃ‚Â delegation included 7 Cabinet Ministers [MinistersÃ‚Â of International Relations andÃ‚Â Cooperation, Defence, Public Enterprises, Trade & Industry, Agriculture,Ã‚Â ForestryÃ‚Â & Fisheries, Transport, and Communications]. ThreeÃ‚Â MOUs/Agreements wereÃ‚Â signedÃ‚Â during the visit: (i) MOU on 2 Cooperation in the Field of Agriculture andÃ‚Â Allied Sectors, (ii) Air Services Agreement and (iii)Ã‚Â MoU on cooperation between the Foreign Service Institute of India and theÃ‚Â Diplomatic Academy of South Africa. A 200-member strong business delegation asÃ‚Â well as senior officials accompanied President Zuma on his visit. President ZumaÃ‚Â met President, Vice President andÃ‚Â Prime Minister; MOS for External Affairs as well as Chairperson of UPA andÃ‚Â Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha called on him. Discussions reflected theÃ‚Â fraternal warmth and affection as well as the strategic partnership that characterizeÃ‚Â bilateral relations. PresidentÃ‚Â Zuma and his delegation also met Indian business leaders in Mumbai on June 2,Ã‚Â 2010.Ã‚Â A Joint Declaration containing key understandings reached during theÃ‚Â meetings was issued during the visit.
5. Recent Ministerial level visits includes that of Mr Anand Sharma, Union MinisterÃ‚Â for Commerce & Industry [08Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â January, 2011 to 11thÃ‚Â January, 2011] in connectionÃ‚Â with inauguration of MMTC office in Johannesburg and holding bilateralÃ‚Â discussions with Mr Rob Davies, Minister of Trade and Industry. Shri Sharma alsoÃ‚Â called on President Zuma, Deputy President KgalemaÃ‚Â Motlanthe, Minister ofÃ‚Â International relations and Co-operation Ms Mashabane and Minister for PublicÃ‚Â Enterprises Malusi Gigaba. Mr Anand Sharma, had also earlier visited South AfricaÃ‚Â [29 August-1 September 2010] for the Ã¢â‚¬ËœIndia ShowÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ which was inaugurated byÃ‚Â President Zuma in the presence of CIM and the South African Minister of TradeÃ‚Â and Industry. Other recent Ministerial visits fromÃ‚Â India include Ã‚Â those by MrÃ‚Â Sriprakash Jaiswal, Minister of Coal [05Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â January, 2011 to 09Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â January, 2011] toÃ‚Â hold discussions with Minister of Mineral Resources Ms Susan Shabangu, by ShriÃ‚Â Vayalar Ravi [29Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â September to 5Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â October, 2010] to participate in the miniÃ‚Â Pravasi Bhartiya Divas (PBD) Convention organized in Durban from 1-2Ã‚Â October,2010 and by Shri Jairam Ramesh, Minister of State for Environment andÃ‚Â Forests to South Africa [25-26 April, 2010 to attend BASIC ministerial]. From SouthÃ‚Â Africa, Mr. Geoff Doidge, SA Minister for Public Works and Mr. Gugwile Nkwinti,Ã‚Â SA Minister for Rural Development to India [separate visits in April 2010], MsÃ‚Â Buyelwa P. Sonjica, Minister for Water and Environmental Affairs to India [JanuaryÃ‚Â 2010 for BASIC ministerial], Mr. Pravin Gordhan, SA FinanceÃ‚Â Minister [to receiveÃ‚Â Pravasi Bharatiya Samman in January 2010] have visited India this year. Visits inÃ‚Â 2009 include that of Ms. Maite Nkoana Mashabane, Minister for InternationalÃ‚Â Relations and Cooperation to India [official bilateral visit in November 2009] Mr.Ã‚Â Rob Davies, SA Minister for Trade and Industry [for the mini-WTO MinisterialÃ‚Â meeting in September 2009]. Mr. Anand Sharma, Minister of Commerce andÃ‚Â Industry visited South Africa on a bilateral visit [August 2009].
6. Earlier, Vice President Mr. M. Hamid Ansari visited South Africa [May 8-10,Ã‚Â 2009] to attend the Inauguration of Mr. Jacob Zuma as President. SA President Mr.Ã‚Â Kgalema Motlanthe attended the III IBSA Summit in New Delhi on 15 October,Ã‚Â 2008, his first visit abroad sinceÃ‚Â becoming President of South Africa. President Smt.Ã‚Â Pratibha Patil made a briefÃ‚Â technical stop over in Cape Town in April 2008 en route India after a visit to LatinÃ‚Â American countries. SA President Mr. Thabo Mbeki, accompanied by ForeignÃ‚Â Minister Dr. Dlamini-Zuma visited India in April 2008 to participate in the IndiaAfrica Forum Summit in New Delhi. Ã‚Â Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh led aÃ‚Â high level delegation to South Africa to attend the 2nd IBSA Summit in October 2007.Ã‚Â At the end of the Summit, the Tshwane IBSA Summit Declaration wasÃ‚Â issued on 17 October 2007.Ã‚Â Seven trilateral MOUs/Agreements were also signedÃ‚Â between India, South Africa and Brazil. Ã‚Â Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Chairperson, UPA andÃ‚Â Congress President, visited SA in August 2007 at the invitation of the DeputyÃ‚Â President of South Africa.
7. Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh paid an official visit to South Africa fromÃ‚Â September 30 to October 3, 2006, accompanied by Minister of Tourism Smt.Ã‚Â Ambika Soni and MOS for External Affairs Mr Anand Sharma. The TshwaneÃ‚Â Declaration was signed during theÃ‚Â visit, reaffirming and deepening the strategic partnership between India and SouthÃ‚Â Africa and laying down benchmarks in all areas of cooperationÃ‚Â including trade &Ã‚Â investment, health, science & technology, defence,Ã‚Â culture and education.Ã‚Â TwoÃ‚Â bilateral agreements were also signed during the visit Ã¢â‚¬â€œ on cooperation in railwaysÃ‚Â and education.
Joint Commission and Foreign Office Consultations
8. The India-South Africa Joint Commission at the level of Foreign Ministers wasÃ‚Â set up in 1994 to identify areas of mutually beneficial cooperation. The 7Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â sessionÃ‚Â of the JMC was held in Pretoria in February 2008. During the visit, threeÃ‚Â Agreements on Customs Cooperation, S&T and visa free travel for diplomatic andÃ‚Â official passport holders were signed. India hosted the 8Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â session of the JMC inÃ‚Â March, 2011 in New Delhi. EAM Shri S.M. Krishna headed the Indian delegation,Ã‚Â while Minister Mashabane led the South African side.Ã‚Â Four rounds of ForeignÃ‚Â Office Consultations have also been held; the latest in Pretoria in May 2010.Ã‚Â Secretary (West), MEA, Shri Vivek Katju headed the Indian delegation.
9. On June 6, 2003, the Foreign Ministers of India, Brazil and South Africa met inÃ‚Â Brasilia and agreed to set up a Dialogue Forum forÃ‚Â regular consultations on suchÃ‚Â matters. Subsequently, in 2006, this was upgraded to Summit level; four SummitsÃ‚Â have been held so far, the last in Brasilia in April 2010. 16 Sectoral WorkingÃ‚Â Groups have been established in areas such as health, agriculture, education,Ã‚Â human settlements, S&T and defence.
10. India and South Africa have a common approach on many global issues,Ã‚Â including UNSC reform, the future of multilateralism, climate change, South-SouthÃ‚Â Cooperation and multilateral trade negotiations. This has led to fruitful cooperationÃ‚Â in the UN, NAM, Commonwealth, IAEA, IOR-ARC, WTO, G-77, G-20 and NAASP.Ã‚Â India has strongly supported the objectives of theÃ‚Â New Partnership for AfricaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢sÃ‚Â Development (NEPAD), which is headquartered in South Africa. A sum of US$ 200Ã‚Â million has been committed for this purpose to be utilized through credit lines,Ã‚Â grants etc.Ã‚Â Some major projects in Angola, Senegal and Mali have already beenÃ‚Â undertaken.
Commercial & Economic Relations
11. Commercial relations have flourished since theÃ‚Â establishment of diplomaticÃ‚Â relations in 1993.Ã‚Â On the trade front, value of bilateral trade has trebled from US$Ã‚Â 2.5 billion in 2003-2004 to US$ 7.5 billion in 2008-2009. During the visit ofÃ‚Â President Zuma to India, both sides agreed to work towards a target of USD 10Ã‚Â billion in bilateral trade by 2012. The trade target was revised to USD 15 billion byÃ‚Â 2014 during the visit of Commerce and Industry Minister in January, 2011 to SouthÃ‚Â Africa as it was estimated that the bilateral trade of USD 12 billion would beÃ‚Â achieved in FY 2010-11. Recent bilateral trade figures are as follows:
Source: Ministry of Commerce In USD Million
12. There is substantial potential for trade growth between the two countries.Ã‚Â Exports from India to South Africa include vehicles and components thereof,Ã‚Â transport equipment, drugs and pharmaceuticals, computer software, engineeringÃ‚Â goods, footwear, dyes and intermediates, chemicals, textiles, rice, and gems andÃ‚Â jewellery, etc.Ã‚Â Import from South Africa to India include rock phosphates, preciousÃ‚Â stones and minerals, fertilizers, steel, coal, transport equipment,Ã‚Â pulp and pulp manufacturing, etc.
13. Major investors include Tata (automobiles, IT,Ã‚Â hospitality, and ferrochromeÃ‚Â plant), UB Group (breweries, hotels), Mahindra (automobiles) and a number ofÃ‚Â pharmaceutical companies, including Ranbaxy, CIPLA, etc as well as ITÃ‚Â companies and some investments in the mining sector. There is also growingSouth African investments in India led by SAB Miller (breweries), ACSAÃ‚Â (upgradation of Mumbai airport), SANLAM and Od Mutual (insurance), ALTECHÃ‚Â (set top boxes), Adcock Ingram (pharmaceuticals), Rand Merchant Bank (banking).
14. An important initiative under negotiation is the India-SACU Preferential TradeÃ‚Â Agreement. Five rounds of negotiations between SACU and India have been heldÃ‚Â so far, the last in Delhi in October 2010.Ã‚Â Combined with the India-MERCOSURÃ‚Â and SACU-MERCOSURÃ‚Â PTAs, it is envisioned that this will eventually lead to a Free Trade AgreementÃ‚Â between India, SACU and MERCOSUR (a large Ã¢â‚¬â„¢free trade area of the South). AnÃ‚Â Agreement for Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (BIPPA) is alsoÃ‚Â under discussion.
15. Commercial interaction has been aided by an India-South Africa CEOsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ Forum.Ã‚Â The Forum was re-launched in June 2010 during the visit of the SA President and met in August 2010 in South Africa. Mr. Ratan TataÃ‚Â on the IndianÃ‚Â side and Mr.Ã‚Â Patrice Motsepe, CEO ofÃ‚Â African Rainbow Minerals on the South African side, chair the Forum.Ã‚Â An IndiaÃ‚Â Business Forum (IBF) was launched in March 2007 inÃ‚Â South Africa to bringÃ‚Â together heads of all Indian companies in SA and provide a platform for promotingÃ‚Â Brand India as well as to take up issues of common concern. IBF currently includesÃ‚Â over 40 companies and is managed by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).
16. The presence of Indian banks (State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Bank ofÃ‚Â India, EXIM Bank and ICICI Bank) has also promotedÃ‚Â economic interaction.Ã‚Â Resident offices in South Africa of GOI Tourist Office and National SmallÃ‚Â IndustriesÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ Corporation are also active inÃ‚Â promoting cooperation.Ã‚Â The International Marketing Council (IMC) of South AfricaÃ‚Â has an office in Mumbai.Ã‚Â The IMC, which works directly under the Presidency, hasÃ‚Â the mandate of promoting South Africa as a brand in foreign countries.
17. IndiaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme (ITEC) has been aÃ‚Â useful medium of promoting cooperation in development of human resources.Ã‚Â South Africa has utilized about 500 ITEC slots forÃ‚Â training since 2000.Ã‚Â Due toÃ‚Â increase in utilization, the numberÃ‚Â of slots allocated to South Africa were increased from 55 to 100 in 2006 duringÃ‚Â Prime MinisterÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s visit in October 2006 and subsequently to 110 in 2008.Ã‚Â AtÃ‚Â present, India also offers specialized courses under the India-Africa forum summitÃ‚Â to African countries, including South Africa. In February, 2011 a diplomat fromÃ‚Â South Africa participated in the Professional Course for Foreign DiplomatsÃ‚Â organized by Foreign Service Institute.
18. In the field of higher education, a number of South African universities haveÃ‚Â established links with counterpart institutions in India.Ã‚Â Several Vice Chancellors ofÃ‚Â prominent South African universities have visited India recently and MOUs onÃ‚Â cooperation have been signed. AÃ‚Â Centre of Indian Studies in Africa (CISA) was launched in September 2008 at theÃ‚Â University of the Witwatersrand, the first Ã¢â‚¬ËœIndia focusÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ centre in Africa.Ã‚Â A GandhiLuthuli Chair of Peace Studies was also launched in September 2008 in theÃ‚Â University of KwaZulu Natal. Universities such as UNISA, University of Pretoria,Ã‚Â UCT, Western Cape and Rhodes are intensifying academic links with India. ThereÃ‚Â is an institutionalized arrangement for a South African academic to occupy theÃ‚Â Nelson Mandela Chair funded by ICCR at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi.
19.Ã‚Â A Defence Cooperation Agreement was signed inÃ‚Â September 2000.Ã‚Â It hasÃ‚Â provided the framework for further strengthening cooperation in this sector.Ã‚Â TheÃ‚Â Sixth meeting of the bilateral Joint Defence Committee was held in India in MarchÃ‚Â 2008.
20. Tourism from South Africa to India to has shown an upward trend. It isÃ‚Â estimated that around 50,000 Indian tourists visitÃ‚Â South Africa each year whileÃ‚Â around 40,000 South African tourists visit India annually.
21.Ã‚Â With the help of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), an intensiveÃ‚Â programme of cultural exchanges is organised throughout South Africa includingÃ‚Â scholarships for South African nationals.Ã‚Â In addition to such cultural programming,Ã‚Â a Ã¢â‚¬ËœShared HistoriesÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ Festival organized as a public-private partnership is also held,Ã‚Â which held its fourth edition in 2010. The SA Minister of Arts & Culture Mr. PalloÃ‚Â Jordan visited India in December 2007 during which he also inaugurated a majorÃ‚Â South African art exhibition.Ã‚Â Mrs. Ambika Soni, Minister for Tourism and CultureÃ‚Â visited South Africa in August 2008 and signed the Programme of Cooperation inÃ‚Â Arts and Culture for 2008-2011.
22. The major part of the Indian origin community came to South Africa from 1860Ã‚Â onwards as farm labour to serve as field hands and mill operatives in the sugar andÃ‚Â other agricultural plantations of Natal (which wasÃ‚Â then a British colony). Most ofÃ‚Â these initial migrants were from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh with Ã‚Â some fromÃ‚Â eastern UP and Bihar. A second wave of Indians came after 1880.Ã‚Â These were theÃ‚Â Ã¢â‚¬Å“passenger IndiansÃ¢â‚¬Â Ã¢â‚¬â€œ so-called because they paid their fares as passengers onÃ‚Â board a steamship bound for South Africa. This was theÃ‚Â community of traders who mainly hailed from Gujarat.
23. Today, the South African Indian origin community numbers around 1.5 millionÃ‚Â and constitutes about 3% of South AfricaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s total population. About 80% of theÃ‚Â Indian community lives in the province of KwaZulu Natal, about 15% in theÃ‚Â Gauteng (previously Transvaal) area and the remaining 5% in Cape Town.Ã‚Â SouthÃ‚Â Africans of Indian origin are well-represented in Government, business, media,Ã‚Â legal and other professions.Ã‚Â The year 2010 marked the 150Ã‚Â thÃ‚Â anniversary of theÃ‚Â first arrival of Indians in South Africa.
Courtesy: Ministry of External Affiars
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